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CDF Talk|柯文思:不该发起这场没有任何赢家的交易战

原创:CDF我国开展高层论坛

CDF Talk是第二十届我国开展高层论坛初次推出的立异讲演。CDF Talk的主旨,是会聚全球顶尖学者、企业家和职业首领,向外界传达具有启发性的共同观念与个人故事,讲演内容触及政治、经济、人文等多范畴。

本年九月的“2019我国开展高层论坛专题研讨会的CDF Talk以“交易、敞开与同享昌盛”为主题,约请十位站在职业前端的讲者共享他们的故事与考虑。

今天,咱们将为咱们放送导演、编剧、两届奥斯卡奖得主导演柯文思拍照中美联系纪录片《仁慈的天使》暗地故事。

柯文思

《仁慈的天使》暗地故事

Better Angels Behind the Scenes

“我把我国和美国看作两个不同的部落,隔着大片水域的灌木丛,互相重视着对方,互相也都不清楚河的彼岸究竟在发作着什么,河彼岸的那些人到底是敌是友。”

“我觉得现在是轮到我国讲故事的时分了。全国际许多国家都惧怕所谓兴起的我国。这并不由于我国是一个要挟,只由于他们不了解我国。”

“我国不是敌人。极力让14亿公民过上更好的日子,她正在做任何一个国家都会做的作业来脱节赤贫。”

“假如全球最大的两个超级大国可以互相待人以诚,可以在一些互利共赢的作业上协作,面对不合的时分可以尊重互相的差异,不只是中美两国会获益,全国际的日子都会好过一些。”

※ 以下是讲演内容节选:

柯文思:《仁慈的天使》暗地故事

@ CDF TALK

咱们下午好!

今天我想给咱们讲一下我的电影,这部电影叫做《仁慈的天使》,是我在6年前也便是2013年拍的,叙述的是未来中美联系。

2013年,中美之间现已有一些严重联系了,我国面对各种不妥的指控,例如不公正交易行为,盗取知识产权,操作汇率等等问题。美国国内也在广泛评论怎么应对我国的兴起。

我不是一个我国专家,我不会说普通话,不是一个学者,也不是一个政治家。

但我是一个制片人。我的作业其实便是叙述人的故事,我以为经过更多相关故事、更广泛的现实,或许能让咱们去了解更多之前不了解的作业。

可是,在刚开拍《仁慈的天使》的时分,我犯了一个巨大的过错。

我没用讲故事的方法,而用了和专家对话的方法,和才高八斗的政治家、银行家、经济学家对话,其成果像噩梦相同的糟糕。

我很快认识到我的电影像是做成了一个电台节目,让人昏昏欲睡。由于它很无趣,没有生命,没有魂灵。

我立刻停了下来,从头开端构思。我觉得最好的方法是透过表象、从人类学的视点拍照这部电影。

我把我国和美国看作两个不同的部落,隔着大片水域的灌木丛,互相重视着对方,互相也都不清楚河的彼岸究竟在发作着什么,河彼岸的那些人到底是敌是友。

风趣的是,六年曩昔了中美之间现在好像仍然如此。

《仁慈的天使》是由美方出资拍照的,这个片子也主要是为美国观众拍的,为什么?由于我以为其实我国人关于美国的了解要比大多数美国人对我国的了解要多得多。

为什么会这样?我觉得某种意义上这是一种赞扬。赞扬美国的宣扬机构、好莱坞电影、电视、出版物以及活泼的学术文明日子。

我来自英国,但我从小是在美国的电影和电视的陪同下长大的,所以我以为我十分了解美国。我想咱们都以为自己了解美国。这很棒,阐明美国人讲故事的才能十分强,我国在这方面就略有短缺。

很惋惜,无论是曩昔仍是现在,我国在讲故事方面都是有些短缺的。有许多原因,文明或许其他的。

可是在现在这个年代,当国际极度地需求了解你的时分,我国需求在介绍自己方面做得再好一些。你看几百年来,美国在这方面做得很好。

我觉得现在轮到我国讲故事了。在我看来,我诚心的期望我国更好地审视自己,并且向全国际介绍自己。

咱们期望经过《仁慈的天使》这部电影测验去平衡这种信息不对称的问题。当然,这个时分不太好持续去叙述这部影片,由于你们或许都没有看过,明显此时我也不太或许让你们看全片,可是可以看一下预告片。

这是咱们制造的招引美国观众走进电影院的预告片。咱们先来看一下这个。然后再来持续评论。

《仁慈的天使》预告片

咱们有没有在影片最终听见基辛格先生的话?咱们会面对抵触吗?基辛格先生说会的,假如我做了这部电影的话。这并不是他的原话,可是他大致便是这个意思,他说我或许会被要挟,或许会被批评,或许会被排挤。

确实这个便是我拍了这部电影之后的待遇。我被称作美国的卖国贼。虽然我是个英国人。

所以很明显的中美之间有一个很大的问题,咱们有必要要对现在的状况做出一些改动,这也是为什么我拍了《仁慈的天使》,我期望至少可以给美国人翻开一扇窗户,去调查这利害攸关的两国联系,了解自己,了解我国公民。

所以就有了这部电影。

这个人是麦蒙·玛塔,他是来自于得克萨斯州的教师,一位橄榄球教练,他到我国来找作业。

咱们在上海的时分拍了他,他在校园里教学生美式橄榄球,我国的学生们很喜欢他,他接连两年被评为年度最佳教师。

麦蒙让学生们认识到美式橄榄球的中心是要像一个团队相同去考虑,并且协作,这个便是团队协作。等他的学生们踢完橄榄球回到教室,他们会把这个思想以及协作方法带入到他们的学习傍边,这些学生的成果都提高了。

儒家的教育系统着重的是个人的出色和成果。麦蒙的学生们之前从未被鼓舞要互相协作。这样一个简略的立异,关于他在德州的学生来说或许是习以为常的,可是却在我国学生这儿发作了巨大的改变。他的出色体现使他得以升职加薪,他的我国太太也十分地快乐。

影片的后边,咱们还讲了一个人的故事这个人叫李绵军。

他从小便是一个数学神童,他一向酷爱算盘,这个长久以来被更多的应用在店肆中的,有着悠长前史的来自我国的核算东西。

李先生发现算盘其实可以用来教授数学,特别是教小孩子。并且孩子们会学得十分好。咱们对此有些置疑,咱们就和李先生来到了洛杉矶。

咱们带着他和他的算盘来到了洛杉矶中南部,一所西班牙裔学生为主的校园。这个区域十分赤贫。

成果十分惊人,不到两个小时,七岁的孩子就学会用算盘来处理杂乱的数学问题。

我数学很差,我多期望我小时分能有这样的教学方法,这很了不得。这件事令我叹服,期望对观众来说也是这样。咱们西方人一般都很难让咱们的孩子对数学发作爱好,用这个陈旧的我国创造或许能压服他们。

这两个关于教育的故事是想要提示咱们的观众,中美都不要独占这些好的构思,并且假如乐意的话,咱们可以互相学习互相获益。

我拍这个电影犯的第二个严重过错是,我以为我拍照叙述中美的电影就必定主要在美国和我国两地拍,现实证明我错了。

当我开端拍照的时分,我没有认识到我国现已是一个全球大国。要精确地点评今天的我国,咱们有必要要走遍全球去了解我国实在的相貌。去了解我国的实在相貌。

这对我的出资人来说是十分糟糕的音讯,我觉得他们绝不会宽恕我,可是上帝保佑他们,他们仍是持续给我出资了。所以咱们到了非洲、到了中东、穿越了欧洲。

我给咱们讲一个小故事。

在埃塞俄比亚的一个当地,在那里咱们遇到了保旺礼先生。

他是一名我国的工程师,协助当地在青尼罗河上游制作一架作为交通要道的桥梁。那是个十分悠远的当地。

26岁的 保先生现已成婚并有一个儿子,但他从没见过。

妻子出产的时分他没能在身边,并且由于地处偏僻,他一周只能给妻子打一次电话。

保先生在埃塞俄比亚的任期是3年,实际上他待了5年,只在18个月的时分回了一次家。

他和他的家人乐意承受这种献身。由于对一个年青的工程师来说,在非洲领到的薪水会比在我国要高许多。

咱们向美国人叙述保先生的故事,并不是由于他很特别,相反,是由于他很往常。

我国改革敞开以来的40年里,有着数不清的像保先生这样的故事。

数不清的家庭天各一方,4000万留守儿童只能跟着爷爷奶奶长大。他们的父母亲在城市里寻觅作业,期望取得更好的日子。

咱们在西方能看到或听到一些关于我国的特殊革新,但或许咱们无法充沛了解我国公民为此支付的巨大价值。一切的这些撑起了我国的经济兴起。

《仁慈的天使》便是期望可以把我国人的相貌、我国人的故事展现出来,以促进两国间更好的了解。虽然在西方,有一些人还在极力妖魔化我国。

挖苦的是,咱们也认识到我国人和美国人其实在本质上是类似的,尤其是说到立异、勤勉、创造力、开拓精神,毫无疑问,这两个国家在全国际都是抢先的。

咱们花了三年的时刻来拍照《仁慈的天使》。拍照刚完毕的时分,收到了一个平地风波般的音讯,特朗普成了美国的总统。更糟糕的是他完成了竞选期间的许诺,对我国采纳愈加仇视的态度。

在这个特朗普时期,咱们手上竟然有一部奥巴马年代的电影。想想我之前说到的那些出资人,他们这个时分很焦虑。咱们有必要再来一遍。

当然,不能从头开端,但咱们需求从头调整,让它合适这个新时期并能坚持论题性。

让我意想不到的是,很古怪,特朗普总统十分执着于我国。他不断征收越来越多的惩罚性的关税,这使得咱们这部现已六年的电影在现在看来仍然是一部符合年代并有论题性的电影。

我供认我并不是特朗普总统的支撑者,但我觉得欠他一个情面。由于每逢他开口说话,好像都是在为咱们的电影做宣扬,而咱们还不必交给他钱。

所以,在这几年的环行国际去拍照这部叙述大国联系的电影的过程中,我有哪些见地和调查,又得出了什么样的定论呢?

首要我以为不该该把我国视为敌人。

极力让14亿公民过上更好的日子,她正在做任何一个国家都会做的作业来脱节赤贫。

落后的国家总是期望经过任何可行的方法向前追逐,这没什么可被质疑的。我国从国外学习到了许多立异、创造、技能,这没什么可被责备的,这是可以了解的。一个国家要开展、要转型,他还能做什么呢?

而在19世纪末20世纪初的时分, 全球的知识产权的“盗取者”又是谁呢?谁能猜到?美国也曾面不改色地拿来主义的运用、改造来自英国和西欧的技能。

假如美国和我国可以同意在公正的环境下竞赛,他们应该持续商洽,改进交易规矩,完成互利共赢,而不是发起这场没有任何赢家的交易战。

其实我国是美国不平等加重的替罪羊,经常被指控抢走了就业时机。其实并不是我国人把就业时机抢走了,这些决定是由美国做出的,是由期望坚持竞赛力的美国工厂主们做出的。

《仁慈的天使》中咱们也出现了俄亥俄州中西部的那些工人们发作了什么。一切那里发作的作业现在也发作在我国工人的面前,他们也面对着竞赛和赋闲。作业时机流向了劳动力更低价的非洲和东南亚国家。严酷的现实便是,全球化关于它的受害者来说是相同的。

在拍了《仁慈的天使》之后的现在,我不是亲华分子,我也不支撑现任美国政府的“肆无忌惮”,可是我支撑中美之间可以和平共处,由于在我看来这是最基本的知识。

假如全球最大的两个超级大国可以互相待人以诚,可以在一些互利共赢的作业上协作,面对不合的时分可以尊重互相的差异,不只是中美两国会获益,全国际的日子都会好过一些。

在我完毕讲演之前,我还要再说一点。我在这儿拍照期间一再地发现,我国人并不厌烦美国。美国人并没有了解到这一点。

我国人关于美国的成果及美国的立异文明是十分称誉的。所以我觉得现在美国人应该更多地来了解我国这个奇特的国度和他的公民,并且给予我国应有的尊重。

西方有许多人仍然惧怕我国的兴起,可是咱们应该要记住,我国其实不是在兴起,而是在复兴。

曩昔五千年,我国文明关于全人类的文明都是做出了巨大的奉献的。曩昔的四十年中,我国现已把自己打造成一个具有全球竞赛力的科技强国,我国公民有理由为此感到骄傲。

我国一向以来都是一个科技的超级大国,可是西方许多人都疏忽掉了这个现实。

我期望在未来的几个月、几年傍边,沉着可以占有优势,暂时的抵触可以得到处理。当两国可以真挚、互利的协作的时分,咱们必定能从这个共同又特殊的国家取得更多好处。

感谢咱们!

Good afternoon, everyone. And let me first say a sincere thank you to CDF for asking me to be here.

Um, but I want to tell you a little bit about a film that I was approached to make. A little while ago, 2013, so six years ago now, the film is called ‘Better Angels’. And it‘s about the future of the relationship between the United States and China.

Tensions in 2013 had been developing for quite some time. China had been accused of all kinds of naughty things, unfair trade practices, IP theft, currency manipulation, and there‘s a great deal of discussion in the States about what they were going to have to do about the rise of China.

So, um, back then I was no expert on China. And I have to confess that I am still no expert on your country. I don‘t speak mandarin, I’m not an academic. I’m not a political scientist.

I‘m a filmmaker. And to do my job, what I need to do is to tell stories about people, which hopefully will have some relevance, some wider truth, and maybe kind of have some access to some realizations that you know unknown for people.

However, when I started making better 证券配资剖析基金angels, I made a big mistake because I didn‘t start by, looking at telling stories. I started by talking to a lot of experts. I talked to political scientists, to bankers, to economists, to all kinds of academics, in bookfilled rooms. And it was a nightmare. It was awful.

And I realized very quickly that I was making a film which was kind of like a radio show with a light on. It was a guaranteed cure for insomnia. Because it just wasn‘t interesting. And it didn’t have a pulse. It didn‘t have a heart.

So I stopped and I went back to the drawing board and I decided that the best way to even begin to scratch the surface of the subject was to make an anthropological film to look at China and America as if they were to tribes two alien tribes, kind of staring at each other through the undergrowth across the large body of water and not really knowing how to kind of assess what was happening on the other side of the river. Those guys on the other side were they friends? Or were they foes?

And interestingly, that still seems to be the operative question today.

‘Better Angels’ was financed by Americans, and it was made mostly for an American audience. Why? Because I think it‘s fair to say that the average Chinese man on the street pretty much understands America far better than the average American understands China.

Why? Because I think it‘s a in a sense, it’s a tribute. It‘s a tribute to the American propaganda machine, to Hollywood to movies, to television, to a free press, to an active intellectual and cultural life.

I’m English, but you know, growing up, I was raised on American movies and the American television series as a teenager. I thought I understood America pretty well. I think we all think we understand America. And, that‘s great. Americans have always been wonderful telling their own story. China, not so good.

It‘s not what China does. It never has been what China does, and it’s still regrettably, is not what China does. Well, there can be all kinds of explanations, cultural and otherwise.

But one would like to think that this moment in history, when the world desperately needs to understand your country. China should be doing a better job of telling its own story. America has done it for century marvelously.

I have to say, I think it‘s China’s turn. And it seems to me and I really heart, I have a heartfelt wish that China begins to look inward at itself and tell its own stories to the world because the world fears China, they fear what they call the rise of China. And it‘s not because China is such a threat. It’s because they don‘t understand your country. So something to bear in mind.

‘Better Angels’ is our small attempt to rebalance that kind of information deficit that exists. Now, it‘s tricky to speak about a film that probably most of you here have not seen. So perhaps, I can start by showing you not the movie, obviously, but the trailer for the film, the trailer that we made to show to Americans to get Americans into the movie theaters. So let’s just, I‘ll shut up for a second. Look at that, and then we can discuss it. Thank you.

Oh, did you hear Kissinger at the end? If we are to clash? Henry Kissinger told me that if I made this film, I would be, um, he used more colorful language, but I will not use that language, but I will say that. He said I would be threatened. I would be criticized. I would be ostracized.

Um, and it seems to be happening. I‘ve been called an American traitor despite the fact I’m British.

But it‘s clear that we have a problem, right? It’s clear that we need to do something about the circumstances. So that‘s why we made ‘Better Angels’ to try and at least open a little window of insight for Americans into what this relationship had at stake and who you were, who the Chinese people were, so the film’s approach.

This is Memo Mata. Memo was a Texan, a teacher and the football coach who came to China looking for a job.

We filmed him in Shanghai, where he‘d just been voted twice teacher of the year for getting great results out of his young Chinese students by teaching them American football. Now Memo discovered the fundamentals of football, which I know nothing about.

Thinking as a team working and cooperating together, what he called group work meant that once his kids got back into the class, they applied those new ways of thinking and collaborating to their schoolwork. The class work on their scores went up.

In a Confucian education system where inpidual excellence and achievement is valued, Memo’s kids had never ever been encouraged to work together. And that simple innovation, which would have been second nature to his kids in Texas, made a measurable difference here in China. For his excellence. He was given a raise. He was given a promotion, and his wife, who was Chinese, was delighted.

A little later in the film, we balance Memo story with the story of this man. His name is Li Mianjun. And as a kid, he was a Math prodigy, who developed a lifelong love for the abacus, the centuries old Chinese calculating device that was used for centuries, principally as a merchant store.

Mr. Li discovered that the abacus could be repurposed to teach math to little kids. And he could get extraordinary results. So we were a little skeptical of this. And we took Mr. Li to Los Angeles.

We took him and his abacus to a largely Hispanic school in south central Los Angeles, which is a poor neighborhood.

The results were amazing. In less than two hours, sevenyearolds were using the abacus to solve complicated math problems.

I was terrible at Math. I mean, I would love to have had this when I was a kid, it was remarkable. It was a revelation and a compelling lesson for me. And I hope for our audience. And what can be achieved if we in the west who struggle mightily to engage our kids, to develop an interest in Math, if we could be persuaded to utilize this ancient Chinese invention.

The point of these two stories, two education stories to remind our audience that neither China nor America have a monopoly on good ideas. And we really can learn and benefit from each others knowledge, if the willingness is there.

A second big mistake that I made making this film was that I thought if I was making a film about America and China that I‘d be largely shooting in America and China. I was wrong because what I failed to appreciate when I started making the movie was that China is a global power. And to get an accurate assessment of China today, you have to go all over the world to see how China is in the world.

This was terrible news for my finances. And I don‘t think they will ever forgive me, but god bless them, they kept the money coming. And so we went to Africa. We went to the middle east, across Europe.

And I want to tell you a little story about, a place that we went in Ethiopia, where we came across this guy called Bao Wangli. He was a Chinese engineer helping to build a desperatelyneeded bridge, up near the headwaters of the Blue Nile. It’s very remote.

Bao was twentysix and married with a son he‘d never met.

He wasn‘t there when his young wife gave birth. And because of his geographic isolation, he could only call her once a week by cell phone. Bao’s Ethiopian assignment was for three years. He actually stayed for five with one home visit after eighteen months.

This was a huge sacrifice that he and his family willingly made, because the pay was better for a young engineer in Africa, than it might have been had he stayed in China.

And we told Bao’s story to Americans, not because it was unusual, but precisely because it was not unusual. It‘s all too familiar to the Chinese in the past forty years since China’s opening up, there have been millions of Bao’s stories.

Countless families have been separated, forty million left behind children being raised by their grandparents, while their mothers and fathers are in China‘s cities trying to find work and money and save for a better life.

We in the West see and hear about the extraordinary transformation of China. But perhaps we don‘t sufficiently comprehend the tremendous price the Chinese people have paid this huge sacrifice that has been made. This supported China’s economic miracle.

What ‘Better Angels’ was trying to do was to put a human face on the Chinese people and the Chinese experience to forge a better understanding between the two nations, despite the best efforts of some of the folks in the west who demonize China.

Ironically, we came to realize that the Chinese and American people are fundamentally far more similar than they are different. When it comes to innovation, hard work, creativity, entrepreneurship, indisputably these two countries lead the world. I‘m going to steal a line from Tom Friedman, who I just watched, give a lovely speech. He said America and China are one country, two systems. I wish I had written that.

We made ‘Better Angels’. It took us three years. And then it came as a shock, just as we were finishing the movie when Donald Trump became the US President. And worse than that, he followed through on his campaign pledge to take a much more adversarial and confrontational stance towards China. Suddenly, unexpectedly we had an Obama era movie in the age of Trump.

You remember those finances I was telling you about. They were not happy. So we had to start again. Uh, we didn‘t start from scratch, but we needed to recalibrate our film and make it topical and relevant for these new times.

But oddly, and certainly unexpectedly to me, President Trump‘s continued obsession with China and his imposition of ever more punitive tariffs has meant that our now six year old movie is still relevant and pertinent. Today it’s still a big story.

And although I confess, I‘m not a huge fan of the American President. I feel we do owe Trump a debt, because every time he opens his mouth, he seems to sell our movie and we don’t have to pay him.

So after years of continually traveling around China in the world, making a film about an increasingly vexed super power relationships. What insights and observations have I made, and what conclusions have I drawn?

First, I feel that China should not be seen as an enemy.

In trying to raise the living standards of 1.4 billion people, it‘s doing what any nation would do to pull itself out of poverty and privation.

Countries that are lagging behind of always try to play catch up by pretty much any means that work. It‘s indisputable. The China has appropriated ideas, innovations, technologies from abroad. There shouldn’t be any blame for that. It‘s understandable. When a country is transitioning out of underdevelopment, what can we expect?

And who was the world‘s preeminent IP thief at the end of the 19th and the early 20th century? Who can guess the United States shamelessly appropriated, adopted, adapted, and often improved technologies born in Britain, in western Europe。

If only China and the United States can agree on how to level the playing field, which is why they should continue to negotiate, to try to find improved trade rules, that can be of a mutual benefit. Instead of waging this unwinnable trade war, which benefits neither side.

China has been made the whipping boy for rising inequality in the United States and constantly been accused of job stealing. It wasn‘t the Chinese who shipped those jobs to China. Those decisions were made in America, and they were made by factory owners who wanted to stay competitive.

And interestingly, in ‘Better Angels’, we show that what happened to those factory workers in the midwest, in Ohio, all across the midwest is now beginning to happen here in China to Chinese factory workers, because they are facing competition and losing their jobs to even cheaper competitors in Africa and Southeast Asia. The hard truth is that globalization is agnostic with respect to its victims.

After six years of shooting ‘Better Angels’, I‘m not proChina and I’m not pro the shenanigans of the Present American administration. But I am pro China and America getting along because to me that‘s plain commonsense.

If the world‘s two great superpowers can deal with each other openly and honestly, working together on issues of mutual interest, like climate change, for example, while respecting each other’s differences when the inevitable disagreements happen. And not only will the US and China benefit, but the whole world will sleep easier.

One inescapable fact before I end because I‘m right at the end of my time, I know. I witness repeatedly during my time shooting here, is that the Chinese don’t hate America. Americans don‘t realize this.

They admire it for all that. It is achieved, for the freedoms that enjoys and for its vibrant culture of innovation, perhaps it‘s time for the American people to learn more about this amazing country and its people and accord China the respect it deserves.

Many in the west still fear the rise of China, but it wouldn‘t hurt to remember that it’s less arise than it is a renaissance of a civilization that has contributed immeasurably to the sum of human knowledge for close to 5000 years. In the space of just forty years, China has reinvented itself as a technological super state that can compete with the best in the world, an achievement for which the Chinese people can be justifiably proud.

China was always a technological super state. We in the west just were largely unaware that you even existed.

I can only hope that in the months and years ahead, level heads might sooner or later prevail and that our conflicts prove temporary and resolvable for we surely have more to gain from this unique and extraordinary country when inflammatory provocation is replaced by sincere, mutually beneficial cooperation.

Thank you very much.


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